MSA Surgeons Offer Muscle Reinnervation Procedure For Amputees

Muskegon Surgical Associates is one of only two practices in the state of Michigan that offers a procedure that can reduce phantom limb pain and improve quality of life for amputees.

What is TMR?

Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) takes nerves that are cut during amputation and reroutes them to surrounding muscle. Originally, TMR was developed to provide amputees with better control of artificial limbs. The electrical currents generated by the muscles can send motor commands to the missing limb to operate a motorized prosthetic device. The surgery was traditionally performed months or years after the initial amputation.

Over time, doctors discovered that TMR also improved certain causes of pain. Now, TMR is employed to treat symptomatic neuromas, the disorganized nerve endings that are responsible for residual limb or phantom limb pain.


Up to 75% of amputees experience debilitating pain. TMR can substantially improve the patient’s quality of life. One study found that 92% of patients reported no pain or brief intermittent pain only after TMR surgery. In many cases, amputees who have experienced significant pain have been able to stop using narcotics or other nerve pain medications after TMR, greatly improving their quality of life. When TMR is performed at the time of amputation, patients can avoid neuroma formation and the risks associated with a second surgery.

TMR can be appropriate for patients experiencing phantom or residual nerve pain or are interested in a TMR prosthesis, who are willing and able to commit to rehabilitation therapy.

MSA is the only west Michigan provider of TMR

Muskegon Surgical Associates is proud to offer this life-changing procedure right here in West Michigan. To learn more about TMR, contact us to schedule an appointment with board-certified plastic and reconstructive surgeon Ryan Ter Louw, MD.

Wikipedia, ScienceDaily, JBJS Journal